signalr programming by example pdf

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    /Trademarks/ are trademarks of the Microsoft group of companies. All other marks are property of their respective owners. The example companies. learning, reading, note taking, writing—is worth your while. There are, of course, some Chapter 3 introduces the ski Microsoft Access VBA Macro Programming. SignalR. Programming in. Microsoft The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, email addresses, logos.

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    SignalR Programming in Microsoft Save this PDF as: . Also, because SignalR itself and many of the examples and contents are focused on the. Pro SignalR: Real-Time Communication with SignalR Copyright © by Keyvan .. Examples of Real–Time Web Application Development. NET programming, and contributed to several open-source projects. introduced SignalR, which is part of libraries. It uses existing transport Chat is the de-facto example of real-time technology as it requires . oriented programming interface which provides developer a lot of control.

    To do so, the report has to be converted into PDF by exporting it to a stream and then converting that stream into a PDF. Developers using ASP. PDF can be directly generated using Rotativa package and sent for printing. Rotativa uses the web kit engine which is used by chrome browser to render HTML. The Rotativa framework provides Rotativa namespace. This namespace contains following classes: 1. The Following steps provide additional information of the demo implementation.

    All other marks are property of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred.

    This book expresses the author s views and opinions. The information contained in this book is provided without any express, statutory, or implied warranties. Neither the authors, Microsoft Corporation, nor its resellers, or distributors will be held liable for any damages caused or alleged to be caused either directly or indirectly by this book.

    Two levels of abstraction Supported platforms OWIN and Katana: The new kids on the block Installing SignalR Chapter 4 Persistent connections 27 Implementation on the server side Mapping and configuring persistent connections Events of a persistent connection What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you! Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our books and learning resources for you.

    To participate in a brief online survey, please visit: microsoft. This book provides a complete walkthrough of SignalR development from scratch, but it will also deal with more advanced topics. The idea is that after reading it you will be familiar with the possibilities of this framework and able to apply it successfully in practice in the creation of real time systems of any size.

    It can also be used as a reference manual because, although not exhaustively, it includes most features of practical application in the development of SignalR systems, and it provides the bases for fully mastering them.

    Who should read this book The aim of this book is to help developers understand, know, and program SignalRbased components or applications.

    It can be of special interest to developers who need to make use of real-time immediacy in existing applications or who want to create new systems based on this paradigm. Developers specializing in the back end will learn to implement real-time services that can be consumed from any client and to address scenarios such as those requiring scalability or quality improvement via unit tests.

    Those who are more oriented to the front end will see how they can consume real-time services and add spectacular features to their creations on the client side. Web developers, especially, will find a really simple way to break the limitations characteristic of the HTTP-based world, thanks to the use of push and the asynchrony of these solutions.

    Assumptions In this book, we will assume that the reader has a good knowledge of C and programming within the. Also, because SignalR itself and many of the examples and contents are focused on the web world, it is necessary to know the protocols on which it rests, as well as having a certain knowledge of the basic languages of these environments, such as HTML and, in particular, JavaScript.

    Familiarity with techniques such as unit testing, mocking, and dependency injection to get the most out of the final chapters could also prove helpful. Who should not read this book Readers who do not know the. If you do not have prior knowledge of JavaScript, it will be difficult to follow the book s explanations. Organization of this book This book is structured into nine chapters, throughout which we will go over different aspects of the development of real-time multiuser systems with SignalR, starting from scratch and all the way up to the implementation of advanced features of this framework.

    Chapter 1, Internet, asynchrony, multiuser wow! From this point, we will begin to look in detail at how to develop applications by using SignalR. We will dedicate Chapter 4, Persistent connections, and Chapter 5, Hubs, to study development from different levels of abstraction, using persistent connections and hubs.

    In Chapter 6, Persistent connections and hubs from other threads, we will study how to integrate these components with other technologies within the same application, and in Chapter 7, Real-time multiplatform applications, we will see how to implement multiplatform clients.

    Chapter 8, Deploying and scaling SignalR, will show different deployment scenarios and the scaling solutions offered by SignalR. In Chapter 9, Advanced topics, we will find miscellanea where we will deal with more advanced aspects, such as security, extensibility, testing, and others.

    Thus, for developers who are approaching SignalR for the first time, the recommendation would be to read the book from beginning to end, in the order that the chapters have been written.

    However, for those who are acquainted with SignalR and have already developed with it in any of its versions, it will suffice to take a quick look at the first three chapters and then to pay closer attention to the ones dedicated to development with persistent connections or hubs to find out aspects they did not know about or changes from previous versions.

    From there, it would be possible to go directly to resolving doubts in specific areas, such as the scalability features of the framework, implementing authorization mechanisms, or the procedure for performing unit tests on hubs. In any case, regardless of the chapter or section, it is a good idea to download and install the related example projects, which will allow practicing and consolidating the concepts addressed. Conventions and features in this book This book presents information using the following conventions designed to make the information readable and easy to follow: Boxed elements with labels such as Note provide additional information or alternative methods for successfully completing a task.

    Text that you type apart from code blocks appears in bold. A vertical bar between two or more menu items for example, File Close means that you should select the first menu or menu item, then the next one, and so on. Introduction xv 16 System requirements To be able to adequately follow the examples shown in this book and practice with them, it is necessary to have, at least, the following hardware and software items: A computer equipped with a processor whose speed is at least 1.

    A video card compatible with DirectX 9, capable of resolutions above x Internet Explorer Visual Studio or above, in any of its editions. It is possible to use Express versions in most cases. An Internet connection. Some examples might require that you have a system account with administrator permissions or that you install complements such as the Windows Phone SDK.

    In some chapters, external resources are also used, such as Windows Azure services. Code samples Throughout this book you can find examples, and even complete projects, to illustrate the concepts dealt with. Note In addition to the code samples, your system should have Visual Studio or installed. However, the SignalR team at Microsoft is constantly striving to improve its product, so it frequently issues software updates.

    SignalR Programming in Microsoft ASP.NET

    The numbering of these versions is usually of the 2. Besides corrections, these updates might include some new or improved features, but not breaking changes or significant modifications of the development APIs.

    In any case, the contents of the book will still be valid after updating components to these new versions, although it will obviously be necessary to modify the existing references in the source code of the examples, especially in the case of references to script libraries. Using the code samples After decompressing the file, a folder structure will have been created. The folders are organized in the same order as the chapters in the book, starting with Chapter 4, which is where we will begin to look at examples of code: Chapter 04 Persistent connections Chapter 05 Hubs Chapter 06 External access Introduction xvii 18 Inside each of these folders you can find a subfolder for each sample project included.

    The solutions are completely independent of each other and include a fully functional example that is ready to be run F5 from Visual Studio , although in some cases it will be necessary to make some prior adjustments in configurations. In such cases, detailed instructions are always given for this on the main page of the project or in a readme.

    Learn 30 Tutorials, Resources, Websites

    Acknowledgments As trite as it might sound, a book such as this would not be possible without the collaboration of many people who have helped with their time and effort for it to become a reality, and it is only fair to dedicate them a special word of thanks. In particular, I would like to thank my editor at campusmvp. I would like to thank Victor Vallejo, of campusmvp. On the part of Microsoft, I want to give thanks to the acquisitions editor, Devon Musgrave, for his interest in this project from the start, without which this book would have never been made.

    I also want to thank project editor Carol Dillingham for her expert work. It is a privilege to have been able to benefit from the suggestions and contributions of the creators of SignalR to make this book as useful as possible.

    Any errors that have been reported since this book was published are listed at: If you find an error that is not already listed, you can report it to us through the same page.

    If you need additional support, Microsoft Press Book Support at microsoft. Please note that product support for Microsoft software is not offered through the addresses above. We want to hear from you At Microsoft Press, your satisfaction is our top priority, and your feedback our most valuable asset. Please tell us what you think of this book at: The survey is short, and we read every one of your comments and ideas.

    Thanks in advance for your input! Stay in touch Let s keep the conversation going! An application that combines Internet, asynchrony, and multiple users cooperating and interacting at the same time always deserves a wow!. At some point, we have all doubtlessly been amazed by the interactivity that some modern web systems can offer, such as Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, Google Docs, Office Web Apps, or many others, where we receive updates almost in real time without having to reload the page.

    For example, when we are editing a document online using Office Web Apps and another user also accesses it, we can see that they have entered the document and follow the changes that they are making. Even in a more everyday scenario such as a simple web chat, the messages being typed by our friend just appear, as if by magic. Both systems use the same type of solution: asynchronous data transfer between the server and the clients in real time.

    We developers who have had some experience in the world of the web are accustomed to the traditional approach proposed by the protocols that govern this environment that is, the client is the active agent who makes requests asking for information, and the server merely answers.

    This is a probable reason for why we are so excited at the prospect of applications where the client side is directly updated by the server for example, due to a new user having entered to edit the document or because our chat room buddy has written a new message in the chat.

    Pure magic.

    The world is undoubtedly demanding this immediacy: users need to know right away what is happening in their environment, the documents they are working on, their social networks, their online games, and an increasing number of areas of their daily life.

    Instead of having to seek information as they used to do just a few years ago, now they want the information to come to them as soon as it is generated. These needs have been evident at web protocol level for some time, because the long-standing HTTP, as defined in its day, cannot meet them efficiently. In fact, the organizations that define web standards and protocols, and also browser developers, are aware of this and have been working for years on new mechanisms for communication between the client and the server in opposite direction to the conventional one that is, allowing the server to take the initiative in communications.

    This has materialized into new protocols that can be used with a degree of reliability, although they are still rather far from universal solutions. The great diversity of client and server platforms, 1 22 and even of network infrastructures, makes the adoption of these new mechanisms difficult and slow.

    Later on, we will delve in detail into these aspects. However, these are not the only issues that have to be addressed when developing real-time multiuser applications. Communications, as we know, constitute unstable and unpredictable variables, which make management and distribution of messages to users quite complicated. For example, in a chat room application, we could have users with very different bandwidths connected to the same room, and those bandwidths might even fluctuate throughout the chat session.

    To prevent the loss of messages in this scenario, the server should be capable of storing them temporarily, sending them to their recipients, and monitoring which users have received them already, always taking into account the conditions of communication with each user and the potential breakdowns that might occur during delivery, sending data again if necessary.

    In a sense, this is very similar to the features that we can find in traditional SMTP servers, but with the added requirement of the immediacy needed by realtime systems. It is easy to picture the complexity and difficulty associated with the implementation of a system such as the one described. Until recently, there was no component or framework in the area of. However, none of them was specifically designed for asynchronous environments with real-time collaboration between multiple users.

    In fact, although it was possible to create this type of system with such platforms, it was not a trivial task even for the most experienced developers, and it frequently produced very inefficient systems with many performance problems and limited scalability.

    Throughout these pages, we will learn how to implement impressive features of this kind using SignalR, a remarkable framework powerful, flexible, and scalable which will facilitate our task to the point of making it trivial. For this purpose, we will first present a brief review of the problems that we find when developing real-time multiuser applications, some of which we have already mentioned.

    We will quickly look at HTTP operation and its limitations for supporting these types of systems, and we will introduce the push concept. This will allow us to achieve a deep understanding of the scenario in which we are working and the challenges surrounding the development of applications boasting the immediacy and interactivity that we have described. In turn, this will help us gain a better understanding of how SignalR works and the basis on which it rests.

    Next, we will formally introduce SignalR, describing its main features, its position within the stack of Microsoft technologies for web development, and the different levels of abstraction that it allows over the underlying protocols and which will help us remain separated from lower-level details so that we can just focus on creating spectacular features for our users.

    We will also take this chance to speak about OWIN and Katana, two new agents which are becoming increasingly prominent in various technologies, SignalR included. Naturally, for this we will provide different code examples that will help us understand its basis in a practical way and thus illustrate how we can use this framework in real-life projects. We will also describe how SignalR is independent of web environments: although they might seem to constitute its natural environment, this framework goes far beyond them, allowing the provision of real-time services from any type of application and, likewise, their consumption from practically any type of system.

    We will see several examples of this. Another aspect of great importance, to which we will devote several pages, is reviewing the deployment and scalability of SignalR applications. We will study the out-of-the-box tools that come with this platform and point to other possible solutions when addressing scenarios where such tools are not powerful enough.

    Additionally, we will look at different techniques designed to monitor the status of our servers and improve their performance in high-concurrency environments. Finally, we will go into advanced aspects of programming with SignalR, which will give us deeper insight as to how the framework works, including security, creating decoupled components using dependency injection, SignalR extensibility, unit testing, and other aspects of interest.

    Welcome to multiuser real-time asynchronous applications. Welcome to SignalR! Internet, asynchrony, multiuser wow! It was initially defined in , and the simplicity and versatility of its design are, to an extent, responsible for the success and expansion of the web and the Internet as a whole. Although it is still valid in traditional web scenarios, there are others, such as real-time applications or services, for which it is quite limited.

    This procedure is often referred to as the pull model: When a client needs to access a resource hosted by a server, it purposely initiates a connection to it and requests the desired information using the language defined by the HTTP protocol.

    The server processes this request, returns the resource that was asked for which can be the contents of an existing file or the result of running a process , and the connection is instantly closed.

    Real-time ASP.NET with SignalR

    If the client needs to obtain a new resource, the process starts again from the beginning: a connection to the server is opened, the request for the resource is sent, the server processes it, it returns the result, and then the connection is closed.

    This happens every time we access a webpage, images, or other resources that are downloaded by the browser, to name a few examples. As you can guess by looking at Figure , it is a synchronous process: after sending the request to the server, the client is left to wait, doing nothing until the response is available.

    Microsoft speeded up its release cadence and has made dozens of announcements about new frameworks, language features, and versions to keep up with the changing developer ecosystem, to improve productivity, and to stay relevant.

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    NET Core. There are also chapters that cover the latest developments to. In summary, this eBook aims to: Help you build rock solid C and. NET developer ecosystem Cover the latest features in. NET and C Help you prepare for a. NET interview, and eventually for a better future Book Structure and Layout The book is pages long with 88 chapters divided into 10 sections, which are as follows: Section 1,. Section 2, The Type System, explains the core principles of types in C : the difference between reference and values types, type safety, static and dynamic binding, parameter passing, etc.

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